Gastrointestinal (GI) primary cells represent a powerful approach for the in vitro study of the physiopathology of this unique tissue. Researchers have now identify intimate interactions between GI cells and its microbia with neurological disorders pointing out the need to access highly characterized sources of GI primary cells to design reliable and more physiologically relevant in vitro cellular models.
A ready-to-use E3 ligase activity enzymatic assay, the E3LITE kit, has been recently designed enabling researchers to screen for E3 enzyme inhibitors and potentially new therapeutical drugs. What’s it for and why is it of interest?
First at all, a quick reminder… Cytokines play important roles in inflammation, innate immunity, angiogenesis and cell growth. They are involved in a lot of disease processes like cancer, obesity and inflammatory and neurobiological diseases.
The RayBio® Membrane-Based Antibody Arrays (C-Series) are tools for screening and comparing expression levels of many cytokines, growth factors, proteases, soluble receptors, and other proteins in a wide variety of sample type.
After these brief definitions, today I would like to introduce you to a new tool allowing multiple cytokine detection. RayBio C-series Neurobiological Discovery Arrays will help you to measure several factors in inflammation, immunology. This method is very popular and can be used for two species: human and mouse.
Analysis of neuronal cell fates and biological activities sometimes relies on the effective staining of a protein of interest (a.k.a. marker) with a specific primary antibody validated for immuno-assays. These markers are used for labeling specific neuron lineages and understand their roles in physiological and various neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). The choice of guaranteed antibodies is crucial. In this post, a selection of the most popular primary antibodies used in neuroscience research and used by researchers all over the world is made. This selection of high quality research antibodies is illustrated with experimental results obtained from skilled scientists. [Read more…]
The FDA-approved drug Losartan is used to treat high blood pressure. By preventing the blood vessels from narrowing, Losartan improves blood flow reducing hypertension. Losartan is also used to reduce kidney damage in type 2 diabetes patients with high blood pressure. Losartan is now considered an attractive therapeutical solution to prevent epilepsy associated with vascular injury.
You may remember the ice bucket challenge. And the cause behind it, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (for a very good editorial on this, have a look here).
ALS or Motor neuron disease (MND) is a disease characterised by progressive, debilitating paralysis from loss of motor neurons in the cerebral cortex, brain stem and spinal cord and is almost always fatal. The average life expectancy following diagnosis is just 36 months with, most often, patients succumbing to the disease because of denervation of muscles involved in respiration. There is only one therapeutic option for patients, a Glutamate antagonist, riluzole, which offers a modest 3–6 month extension in survival.
Years ago, exosomes were considered as ‘extracellular debris’, but in fact they are mediators of intercellular communication by delivering functional proteins, mRNA transcripts and miRNA to recipient cells. In Neurobiology, it has been suggested that they primarily serve as signaling organelles which also remove unwanted cellular components in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes can also contribute, significantly, to the development of several neuropathologies. [Read more…]
Neurotrophins are important biomarkers in Neurobiology, including stem cell development to neural lineages. BDNF and NGF are the ones being studied in most cases. However, it has been found that neurotrophins do not act independently. Many publications have described the coordinated actions of 2 or more neurotrophins, especially in development, but also in the adult. [Read more…]
Mature cultures of neurons and other neural cells are extremely valuable for in vitro neurotoxicity studies and screening for agents that can slow, stop, or even reverse the course of neurodegenerative diseases.
The transfection of nucleic acids into neurons is essential for studying many aspects of neurobiology. However, neurons are among the most difficult cell types to transfect. They are very sensitive to culture conditions, presenting a particular challenge with regards to efficiencies. In addition to yielding low efficiencies, currently available cationic lipid reagents are often toxic to the cells, compromising post-transfection experimental results. While some viral mediated gene delivery systems have been shown to produce high efficiencies, they are very labor intensive and inconvenient for most researchers, along with the inherent danger and risk of provoking an immune response in the cell and/or interfering with the host genome. So what other solutions exist? This recently introduced alternative is well worth discovering… [Read more…]
The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channel family participates in numerous functions of the Nervous System. A recent publication tends to indicate that TRP might also be of interest for therapeutical strategies for controlling pro-inflammatory CD4+ T cell reactions.