MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and influence numerous cellular functions. Together with mature RNAs and small molecules, mature miRNAs can induce forced reprogramming of somatic cells. They are considered as key regulators in stem cell development. (1, 2)
But what if you want to profile the expression of human IPS (stem cell) related miRNAs?
Angiogenesis refers to new vessel formation from the pre-existing ones. This process is essential during development, wound healing, as well as the transition of malignant tumors. VEGF family has been identified as a major contributor to angiogenesis, while families of Angiopoietin, PDGF, and FGF govern the process as well.
The most important member of VEGF family is VEGF-A, which couples with its receptor VEGFR2 to stimulate signals in endothelial cells for survival, proliferation, adhesion, migration, and tubular formation. This signaling also mediates vessel permeability and stimulates inflammatory response.
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mRNAs are expression factors that mimic fully processed mRNA. Being the substrate for translation by ribosomes, mRNA expression factors are often preferred over viral vectors for cell reprogramming and iPS cell generation because of the absent risk of integration into the genome. Such RNA-induced pluripotent stem cells (RiPSCs described in 2010 by Warren et al.) are becoming more and more popular. 3 reasons might illustrate RiPSCs’ attractivty.