Study of living tissues has gained wide spread application in microscopy with the advent of fluorescent dyes and inverted microscopes dedicated to their viewing. A critical component is maintaining physiological conditions in media formulations, including pH and osmolarity, without contributing to background fluorescence. Most cells are grown in media formulations that use bicarbonate buffers, requiring the continuous presence of CO2 to maintain physiological pH. Just 15 minutes outside a CO2 incubator can change the pH from 7.4 to 8.1, and to 8.7 after an hour. [Read more…]
Cell reprogramming of Mouse and Human somatic cells to induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) have opened outstanding new opportunities for biomedical research. iPSC are now becoming unique cellular models for personalized therapies and regenerative medicine.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and influence numerous cellular functions. Together with mature RNAs and small molecules, mature miRNAs can induce forced reprogramming of somatic cells. They are considered as key regulators in stem cell development. (1, 2)
But what if you want to profile the expression of human IPS (stem cell) related miRNAs?
Angiogenesis refers to new vessel formation from the pre-existing ones. This process is essential during development, wound healing, as well as the transition of malignant tumors. VEGF family has been identified as a major contributor to angiogenesis, while families of Angiopoietin, PDGF, and FGF govern the process as well.
The most important member of VEGF family is VEGF-A, which couples with its receptor VEGFR2 to stimulate signals in endothelial cells for survival, proliferation, adhesion, migration, and tubular formation. This signaling also mediates vessel permeability and stimulates inflammatory response.
Our selection of 100% guaranteed research antibodies related to the VEGF-ANG pathway!
- ERK1 antibody: a rabbit polyclonal antibody to ERK1
- VEGFA antibody: a rabbit polyclonal antibody to VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A)
- CDC42 antibody: a chicken polyclonal antibody to CDC42
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mRNAs are expression factors that mimic fully processed mRNA. Being the substrate for translation by ribosomes, mRNA expression factors are often preferred over viral vectors for cell reprogramming and iPS cell generation because of the absent risk of integration into the genome. Such RNA-induced pluripotent stem cells (RiPSCs described in 2010 by Warren et al.) are becoming more and more popular. 3 reasons might illustrate RiPSCs’ attractivty.
In 2010, a method for integration-free reprogramming by transfecting modified mRNA reprogramming factors was published (1, 2). The use of mRNA to induce reprogramming of somatic cells overcomes the inherent problems incurred by introducing viral vectors and/or integrating DNA to target cells. mRNA reprogramming factors are titratable and controllable with regards to the ratios, concentrations, and timing of factor expression. The mRNA reprogramming system also poses none of the biosafety risks surrounding viral and DNA-based systems. [Read more…]
Very often primary cell cultures are jeopardized by the outgrowth of contaminating fibroblasts. The population of the target primary cells is directly affected since fibroblasts usually grow at much faster rates than other cell types. [Read more…]
It is widely accepted that data obtained from primary cells is not only desired, but, most relevant when trying to study physiological interactions. Experimentation in primary cells allows a deeper and more physiologically relevant view into the cellular function of proteins and enzymes that will allow the design of more specific drugs with meaningful and specific targets.
Chipman et al. (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada) have developed a new cell-based system “mimicking” in vitro Mature Neuromuscular Junction (NMJs). (1)
NMJs play an important role in the functionality of Motor neurons.
Their dysfunction is seen in the early stages of various Motor Neuron Diseases (MNDs) like the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), Primary Lateral Sclerosis (PLS), Progressive Muscular Atrophy (PMA)…
To meet these needs, Chipman et al. have created a clever co-culture system using Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Motor Neurons (ESCMNs) with primary myotubes. They also reported that NCAM-/- ESCMN/myofiber co-cultures exhibit the same phenotypes observed in NCAM-/- mice.
This work give hopes to study MNDs in vitro by using motor neurons differentiated from induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS) derived from individuals with ALS and SMA.
Want to know more about cell-based assays and co-culture systems?
(1) Chipman et al. “A Stem-Cell Based Bioassay to Critically Assess the Pathology of Dysfunctional Neuromuscular Junctions” (2014) PLOSone, March 13. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091643
tebu-bio provide European researchers with high quality and innovative tools for:
- Stem cell studies & reprogramming.
- Ion channel analysis with Smartox venomous synthetic peptides (ex. Omega-AGATOXIN IVA a blocker of P/Q-type calcium channel (Cav2.1)).
- Drug discovery with pure and affordable active small molecules from FOCUS Biomolecules (ex. Nifedipine a L-type Ca channel blocker).
- Primary and iPS cells
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cardiac hypertrophic factor with cardiac myocyte protective properties. CT-1 belongs to the interleukin-6 cytokine family and acts through LIF receptor ß/glycoprotein 130 (gp130)-coupled signaling pathways.
CT-1 intracellular signaling pathways enlist kinases (ERK, MAP, JAK) but also STAT and PI3-kinase/Akt systems.
Cardiac CT-1 expression is increased by hypoxia, where it protects cardiac myocytes from ischemic injury and apoptosis.