A single-domain antibody (sdAb, also called Nanobody) is an antibody fragment consisting of a single monomeric variable antibody domain. Like a whole antibody, it is able to bind selectively to a specific antigen. With a molecular weight of only 12–15 kDA, single-domain antibodies are much smaller than common antibodies (150–160 kDa). They have been shown to be just as specific as a regular antibody and in some cases more robust. They are being researched for multiple pharmaceutical applications in in vivo imaging and targeted therapy. eg. the fusion of a fluorescent protein to a single-domain antibody can be used to trace targets in different compartments of living cells. They can therefore increase the possibilities of live cell microscopy and will enable novel functional studies. [Read more…]
In a previous post dedicated to Quantitative arrays (Quantibody), I introduced our L-Series aimed at a broad one shot profiling of up to 1000 markers at once. This relative quantitation technology allows you to perform a first screen of your samples of interest versus a control, before you go on to targeted profiling using either pathway specific arrays, or a custom array including the targets of interest identified with the initial L-series screen. [Read more…]
On your journey to Biomarker profiling, you will reach the point where you need to quantify the proteins of interest identified along the way (eg. validation of semi-quantitative array results; biomarker discovery with an initial hunch on which pathway is involved).
At this stage, you will have narrowed down the number of targets you want to look at. However, the use of ELISAs is likely to be still too costly, too time consuming, and may require too much sample volume. [Read more…]
With more than 170,000 publications in 2016, inflammation remains a “hot” topic in today’s Life Science research (source: Google Scholar). Interestingly, the ELISA test is still one of the most popular tools for the accurate quantification of human cytokines involved in this biological process. Here, we review the 5 protein targets most studied by our clients, together with their favourite ELISA kits by RayBiotech in the field of inflammation.
Protein arrays enable the analysis of the biological function / activity of dozens to hundreds of proteins in one experiment (e.g. auto-antibody detection, protein-protein interactions, small molecule screening…). In this post, let’s review the recent Raybiotech Protein Arrays focusing on Immunology.
The Picokine™ line of ELISA kits is the culmination of over 20 years of development. Today, I would like to tell you a bit more about this innovation by Boster for your ELISA tests. [Read more…]
All cell types are in contact with the ExtraCellular Matrix (ECM), a complex and dynamic network of macromolecules with different physical and biochemical properties. The ECM plays an essential rule in structural support, adhesion, movement and cell regulation. Its components are frequently monitored, which requires robust and user-friendly kits.
In this post, I invite you to take a look at 5 popular kits you should know about… to boost your ECM studies!
Immune checkpoint molecules play an important role in T cell functionality after TCR/MHC signaling. In fact, blockade of two B7/CD28 family checkpoint molecules, namely CTLA-4 and PD-1, have already demonstrated excellent efficacy in increasing T cell responses to a variety of tumors. [Read more…]
RIPA buffer is one of the most useful protein extraction buffers and maintains most native structures of proteins. Nevertheless, RIPA buffer is not convenient enough to extract membrane proteins and membrane-associated proteins concentrated in lipid raft.
Lipid raft is a highly unique microdomain on the lipid bilayer which contains special lipids, cholesterol and functional proteins. In this layer, lipid raft-enriched proteins are usually insoluble in mild detergent buffers such as 1% Triton X-100 and RIPA buffer. Consequently, it was, up to now, difficult to analyze the functions of this kind of proteins.
We need to find biomarkers for prognostic, diagnostic and personalised treatment development. Notably to fight cancers that affect tissues. Since biopsies are invasive, it’s better to look for biomarkers in body fluids. Indeed, a simple blood sample becomes a kind of ‘liquid biopsy’ to reveal tissues affections. For 13 years, increasing interest has been shown for miRNA as biomarkers and it will last for sure. The 2 main reasons are that they are major regulators of cell processes and they are released from tissues into the blood. They are major biomarker candidates in serum and plasma. Thus, these circulating miRNA (cmiRNA) are the best hope for modern medicine. Still, a lot of research has to be done to determine the specific signature for each pathology, and also depending on the patient background. Obviously, cmiRNA profiling is a key step and requires sensitive and reproducible method. Sequencing, qRT-PCR, several kind of microarrays… Let’s explore together what the best approach could be. [Read more…]