DNA and Histone proteins are targets for epigenetic modifications.
One of the roles of Epigenetics is to drive cellular differentiation from totipotent Stem cells to fully differentiated cell types, by regulating gene expression through patterns of modifications that differ according to the cell type and the cell status. This means that the patterns may significantly differ between stem cells, germ cells, and differentiated cells.
It has been found that cancer cells often differ in regard to specific Epigenetic modification sites too. Thus, epigenetic enzymes are considered as potential pharmaceutical drug targets or biomarkers, and quite some effort is made to define drugable targets.
In a previous post I focused on histone modifying enzmes (writers) . Today I will concentrate on those enzymes which erase modification from histones (erasers). Later on, in a further post we’ll be focusing on proteins which recognize specific modifications (readers).